Arunachal Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country. Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east and is separated from China in the north by the disputed McMahon Line. Itanagar is the capital of the state.
A major part of the state is claimed by the Republic of China, and the People's Republic of China referring to it as "South Tibet". The major part of the state which is claimed by China, was temporarily occupied by Chinese forces during the 1962 war.
NEFA was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh by Late Sri Bibhabasu Das Shastri, the then Director of Research and K.A.A. Raja, the then Chief Commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh on 20 January 1972, and it became a Union Territory. Arunachal Pradesh became a state on 20 February 1987.
The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh is unclear. According to the Arunachal Pradesh government, the Hindu texts Kalika Purana and Mahabharata mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and where sage Parashuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom, and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini.
Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom and Chutiya chronicles. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, were under the control of the Chutiya Kings until the Ahom-Chutiya battle in the 16th century. The Ahoms held the areas until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalisation of indigenous administration in 1947.
Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples, such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang, indicate they were built during the Chutiya reign. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in prehistoric times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture but the Chutiya rulers held the areas around Bhismaknagar from the 12th to 16th century. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.
Language And Culture
The state aboriginal tribes that have a distinct dialect hence the language of the state is highly influenced by these tribal people. The most commonly spoken languages in Arunachal Pradesh are Dafla, Mishri, Adi Gallong, Monpa, Aka, Nocte, Khamti, Nishi, Wancho and Tagin.
Other than these tribal languages, resident of Arunachal Pradesh also speak Hindi, Deori, Assamese and English.
The culture of Arunachal Pradesh is truly varied in the sense that the state has 26 major tribes including sub-tribes. Every tribe has their own unique set of traditions and customs.
The sun and the moon are the presiding deities of the major tribes who follow the Donyi-Polo religion (the name stands for sun and moon). The West Kameng and Tawang district are mainly inhabited by the Tibetan influenced Monpa and Sherdukpen tribe. In Lohit district it is the Khampti and the Singpho tribe. All these four major tribes are followers of two different sects of Buddhism (Mahayana Hinayana). The other tribes are basically followers of ancient beliefs with animal worship being quite prominent amongst them.
Arunachal?s cultural lifestyle is dominated by colourful festivals. Since agriculture is the mainstay here so people generally celebrate festivals as a mark of thanksgiving to the Almighty for giving them a good harvest. These festivals also showcase the artistic skills of the various tribes.
State animal: Mithun (Bos frontalis)
State bird: Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)
State flower: Foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)
State tree: Bhutan pine (Pinus wallichiana)
How to Reach
Well-connected to Kolkata ad Guwahati, Lilabari (North Lakhimpur) Tezpur airport in Assam is the nearest airport, 260 km . You can catch direct flights to Kolkata and Guwahati from all prime cities including Delhi, Mumbai and Pune.
The nearest railway station is Harmuty, which is only 33 km from Itanagar. North Lakhimpur in Assam is the most convenient railhead.
By Road :
Arunachal Pradesh is easily accessible by roads. From the various neighboring cities, and towns like Guwahati, Jorhat, Dibrugarh, Tinsukhia and Nagaon, one can easily get direct buses to reach Arunachal Pradesh