Bihar

About

Bihar is a state in East India, bordering Nepal. It is divided by the River Ganges, which floods its fertile plains. Important Buddhist pilgrimage sites include the Bodhi Tree in Bodhgaya's Mahabodhi Temple, under which the Buddha allegedly meditated. In the state capital Patna, Mahavir Mandir temple is revered by Hindus, while Sikhs worship at the domed, riverside Gurdwara of Takht Sri Harmandir Sahib Ji. Bihar is one of the strongest agricultural state. It is the third largest producer of vegetables and the sixth largest producer of fruits in India. Food processing, dairy, sugar, manufacturing and healthcare are some of the fast growing industries in the state. The state enjoys a unique location specific advantage because of its proximity to the vast markets of eastern and northern India, access to ports such as Kolkata and Haldia and to raw material sources and mineral reserves from the neighbouring states. The state has a large base of cost effective industrial labour, making it an ideal destination for a wide range of industries

History

The history of Bihar starts with Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age. Regions of Bihar such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India. Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan peoples who established the Videha Kingdom.The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these where the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty, Raghuvanshi and finally Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga. In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam after independence.

Language And Culture

Language: Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the State. Other languages of the state are Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, Bajjika, and Angika, of which only Maithili is recognised by the government of India. Bhojpuri and Magahi are sociolinguistically apart of the Hindi Belt languages fold, thus they were not granted official status in the state. Culture: Rich in diversity, Bihari culture is a neat mosaic of three major religions - Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism - that had defined its literature, arts and crafts, cuisine, architecture and festivals. Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town in the Gaya district that gave rise to Buddhism which spread across the world. Also, Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th Century B.C.

State symbols

State Animal: Gaur (Mithun) State Bird: House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) State Flower: Kachnar (Phanera variegata) State Tree: Orchid tree (Phanera variegata)

Top Attractions

1.Ganges 2.Mahabodhi Temple 3.Sanjay Gandhi Jaivik Udyan 4.Patna Museum 5.Funtasia Water Park

Top Cities

1.Patna 2.Gaya 3.Bihar Sharif 4.Bhagalpur 5.Muzaffarpu

How to Reach

By Air: Bihar is well-connected to major cities of India and the world via air. Jayprakash Narayan Airport (Patna) and Bodhgaya Airport (Gaya) are the two important airports of Bihar. Regular flights operate between Bihar and major cities of the country like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Lucknow. Taxis and buses are available from the airport to reach different destinations of the state. By Road: There is a vast network of National Highways and State Highways which connects Bihar with major regions of the country. Bihar is connected to areas within and outside the state via these highways. State and private buses, taxis and autos are popular modes of transport in Bihar. By Rail: An excellent network of railway connects major and minor regions of Bihar to different parts of the country through rail. Patna, Gaya and Bhagalpur are main railheads of Bihar. From the railway station, tourists can take taxis or buses to reach their destination.